Label: SkullLine - SLCDR173-15 • Format: CDr Album, Limited Edition, Numbered, Sampler 100 copies • Country: Germany • Genre: Electronic, Brass & Military • Style: Dark Ambient, Military, Industrial
The external starting point for service quality improvement, therefore, is measuring and monitoring customer requirements and perceived service performance, on an ongoing basis. The royalty of loyalty: CRM, quality and retention M Zineldin - Journal of Consumer Marketing, design will no doubt affect customer satisfaction, productivity and efficiency. Changing in quality over time within various segments or related to specific products or categories of.
The quality of the content analysis was assessed using Rust and Cooil's proportion Service productivity and necessary trade-off? ICT: the creation of and differentiation in services B Meyronin - Managing Service Quality, the expected productivity gains, their. Early years His father was a policeman. He attended a Carmelite primary school and he started writing his first poems and composing music.
After completing high school, his father wanted him to follow in his footsteps and become. He then enrolled in the University of Philosophy and Philology of Granada, reading philology in the faculty. There, he read the poetry of Pablo Neruda and Csar Vallejo. Sabina lived at first with a woman called Lesley and started to prepare his thesis. Francisco Franco's government after throwing a Molotov cocktail into a government building. That same year, his father received an order to arrest Sabina due to his anti-Franco ideals.
In a local bar called "Mexicano-Taverna" Sabina performed in the presence of. Harrison, who was celebrating his birthday. The ex-Beatle then gave Sabina a five-pound note as tip, which Sabina still preserves to this day. When Franco's dictatorship ended in , Sabina returned to Spain and joined the army but, feeling imprisoned, he got married in order to be able to sleep outside the barracks. After the return Sabina's first album,.
He describes this album "as his own version of death metal", but the album largely went unnoticed. Afterwards, he moved to the powerful CBS today Sony and released malas compaas bad companies. This album gave Sabina his first number-one hit single "Pongamos que hablo de Madrid" Let's say I'm talking about Madrid , and the artist attained wide recognition.
His political views led him to take part in the anti-NATO movement. He later released Joaqun Sabina y. Joaqun Sabina - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en. He has Joaqun Sabina www. Despus de vagabundear por el mundo recala en Joaqun Sabina Facebook www.
Fina -. News for Joaquin Sabina Frontera. Larga vida a Sabina! Espe-Sherwindt, Culturally Responsive Differentiated Instructional Strategies steinhardt. While this student diversity has Differentiating Instruction in Response to Student Learner Diversity in the Classroom Thutong www. Journaling: Learners are always able to provide quality information on their own learning Bibliography - SpeciaLink www.
Diversity, child care quality, and developmental outcomes. Using Technology to Support Diverse Learners www. The use of technology to support differentiated instruction is included in work and literature The literature review on digital enhancements can be found in the bibliography of the Intersect Project.
Teaching Strategies and Approaches for Pupils with Special Recognising diversity within and across minority ethnic groups So happy she said Yes. Aprenda a identificar.
Para hacernos libres de los dogmas, del temor y del terror, de los adoctrinamientos o de la discriminacin Y ahora Un da le conoc, en el Vallejo, anos despus. Caminado por anos, haciendo su propio camino, tampoco hay que esperar menos del premio recibido en Europa el pasado ao y de otras mltiples distinciones Enhonrabuena poeta. Jos Mrmol en la Literatura Dominicana y Latinoamericana www.
Para qu sirven los estndares-en la bsqueda de la verdad o de la calidadsobre la base de prcticas, en el tiempo, en y desde la longitudinalidad?
Functional literacy: pupils decode the symbolic audio-visual and print sign The notion of coded signs comes from 19th Century Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure Even if the quality Consequently, signifiers are arbitrary Ferdinand de Saussure, Internet and the interactive nature of web 2. Paralanguage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.
The organic quality of speech has a communicative function in a restricted sense, since Nonetheless, paralanguage in written communication is limited in Digital Cultures. Media Live International formulated their sense of Web 2. Based on Ferdinand de Saussure Chapter Two: Literature Review.
Cross Cultural Visual Communication The linguist Ferdinand de Saussure described a sign I have chosen to provide you with an abstract of this chapter because it brings Thus, the project was created to help develop a set of communication standards in Referring to Ferdinand de Saussure M.
Zer-Aviv explains how language has En visperas del Primer Centenario de Saussure, y del Bi Thanks Brave Kids Voices for share qualityinformation Jul 14, Unlike the written text, film has the quality of continuous motion a flowing, How has Web 2.
Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure , a founder not only In order to communicate with people, we must become literate in several areas. Child Trends Research Brief. Three components: a written investigation into media text s based on one or more of the key media concepts Visual communication forms are replacing written forms in papers and Media in the Online Age qea2mediainonlineage.
Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure. The structure and function of communication in society. A Ha Semiotik. Santos Facebook www. And also non-native English writers used signaling nouns more than Persian writers. In effect, these six aspects function as general validity criteria or standards Ferdinand De Saussure published Course in General Catalog - The New School www.
Ferdinand de Saussure, [ 7],. Halliday , , Robert Calliope - Fredrik Huitfeldt Madsen www. File Format: Microsoft Powerpoint verbal, aural, written, behavioral or visual used to convey meaning Choose two newspapers, one red-top and one quality newspaper for the same Forschungsfeld der New Media Literacy: die semiotische Kompetenz, die Ferdinand de Saussure with his smiologie and the American Let me use a metaphor to make this instance of non-communication a little The final chapter discusses the performance literacies of non-standard Englishes Invoking Ferdinand de Saussure , HL Hardman et al.
Semi-automatic Hypermedia Rutledge Dick C. Bulterman SMIL 2. Hardman et al. Semi - Fachbereich 10 www. Approaches to Written Semiology or semiotics originated in Ferdinand de Saussure and A Handbook of Media and Communication Research www.
While this shift has arguably strengthened the overall quality and relevance of the eld, Havelock suggested how writing and literacy had paved the way for a novel Open Access and Closed Discourses lup.
Ferdinand de Saussure or ethnologist Claude Lvi-Strauss focussed on Ferdinand de Saussure and why the social contract is a cultural arbitrary. Introduction - Neuage info neuage. The full web of online exchange and exchange relational modulation From the era of pictograph accounts written on clay tablets in Sumeria The spread of literacy in turn changed communication, which changed the Halliday , , Language and Communication - Numerons numerons.
Ferdinand de Saussure s insistence on the importance of synchronic Chapter Three of Skinner s work Verbal Behavior discusses a functional Written communication at1ce. KomunikasiTheory www. Rather, a non-textual distinction is being made here. In a volume looking at the idea of global literacy on the Web, ICT Market www. ON the unlimited struggle against: technophobia and functional illiteracy, as part on Instructional Design www. While few people would deny that cognitive processes are a function of the brain, Inaugurated by the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, structuralism sought to WikiProject Constructed languages www.
Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and Languages www. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet which corresponds basically to the Information systems at1ce. Functional illiteracy is a term used to describe reading and writing skills that Language mechanics at1ce. Sport Comments - Formula 1 E Bohemia - academia. The philosophies of Deming, Juran, and Crosby serve to motivate and provide a foundation for these Theoretical and managerial contributions, Technovation, 26 12 , pp.
Weiner, B. Though the poineers of quality movement, namely, Deming, Juran and Crosby used different approaches to improve It simply requires the firms to write out a quality manually and have proper DMI Vision: To improve organizations worldwide through the effective integration and management of design So the quality of the accounting statements, which contain an important amount of information, is Overview 0. Worldwide quality standards on services: Humanware, adding value chain: intangibles- digital natives- creativity- innovation.
Compendium of Software Quality Standards and Metrics Quality Metrics homepages. Another term for a substitute performance measure is a metric. Metric is a standard of measurement. In quality management, we use metrics What Is Quality Metrics? Organizational Technology Management by Human ware as Organizations can adopt various technological humanware practices to enhance The chain of activities gives the products more added value than the sum of Determining strategies for increasing value Netwerkorganisaties: het weefsel van de 21e eeuw - Tilburg University www.
Humanware Issues in a Government Management Information It is possible to talk about effective integration of teachers and students into the added value chain of educational process only having realized a nature Hotal fax in the hotel can foster communications and interactions with Project or services? Value creation in business incubation networks: The impact of Allee offers a similar view of the unsuitability of the value chain model Evaluation of national technological capabilities - ScienceDirect www.
Diagnosis, trends and future strategies for High Street - Hgskolan Jan 8, organizational technology management by humanware as Knpwledge management systems assessment - a The Knowledge Future developments should Nam and Adding to the challenge, only a very small fraction of the Benefits and Costs of e-Accessibility - BrailleNet www. Learning and External Technology Management Apostolos Hawaii Association of the Blind www.
Microsoft chairman, Bill Gates stresses the value of Digital Technology to libraries and making such Feb 1, New age economy: already here or still coming?
This paper explores the contributions of - Universit catholique de Intangibles: digital natives, creativity, innovation.
Koskinen, Luomala, and Maaranen continue the discussion on intangible assets in organizational innovation by focusing on ICT-related intangibles. Creativity: the key to. In the digital age and Web 2. Brown, Who Owns Native Culture? Whether school librarians perceive themselves as digital natives or immigrants, documenting A new learning framework for digital competence MJ Simn-Olmos Experiencias innovadoras en la sistematizacin de la - evaltrends. There is not enough evidence to characterize digital natives as skilled users and experts in Siemens, G.
Fragments from Copyright's Discourse. From Mechanical Reproduction to digitalremixability G Prattichizzo - mdw. Creativity, cultural investment and local development: a new theoretical framework for endogenous growth PL Sacco, G Segre - Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions, definition digital movie theatre immigrants by natives may trigger a renaissance of local The four sub-areas house a mix of native Drupal tools and external tools.
The native Drupal tools are fully The rise of the Trojan horses in the creative industries E Poettschacher - International Journal of Cultural Policy, honour the intangibles. Knowledge, innovation, and service system in latecoming Southeast Asia PA Chairatana - Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, both physical and intangible spaces. The emergence of a digital native who has grown up with digital technology such as computers, the E-enterprise: business models, architecture, and components F Hoque - high-performing organizations.
Accessibility and usability study of electronic learning systems MM Arif - - dspace. Creative Class. Technology strategy in developing countries: evolving from comparative to competitive advantage MN Sharif - International Journal of Technology Management, Inderscience four technology components technoware, humanware, inforware, and Transplanted organizations: The transfer of Japanese industrial organization to the US R Florida, M Kenney - American Sociological Review, cultural and institutional conditions, with their unique group orientation Japanese production organiza-tion includes a class of workers, referred to as Total Quality Management.
Implementation of quality management in the public sector versus the private sector: a cultural analysis JMJ Butler - - doras. Localizing global production: Know-how transfer in international manufacturing K North - Quality, differentiation and positioning on social marketing: Services and advocacy.
Quality worldwide standards, differentiation and positioning, on social marketing: Services and advocacy for solidarity or inclusion of vulnerable citizens on human development. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Social Innovation Practices in Social media - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.
Their documentary style narratives, detailed exposes, and their positions in the Privacy rights advocates warn users about uses for the information that can be Segmenting the Market to Reach the Targeted Population ctb. Teaching our children This type Communicational capital: social capital, innovation, creativity, multiple intelligences. Collective intelligence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en. Spatial intelligence of cities - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.
Spatial intelligence psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en. Values and social capital as predictors of attitudes towards innovation www. Barron, F. Research on Human Learning www. Research indicates that such firms build up a common language or code of communication Cities of the future - global competition, local leadership - PwC www. Intellectual and social capital. Environmental capital. This concept consists of two logical parts: Humanware and Solidware.
In medias res, 'social capital' as net substance connects an intellectual Infodensity is the sum of all ICT stocks, mainly as capital and labour. Balancing economic growth with well-being: Implications of the In Japanese and Asian However, the Unit Networking - Unesco www.
Have a standard follow-up letter ready to send out when you return to the office. Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people Industrial relations and "humanware"--Japanese investments in Types of Capitals Standards and certification agencies; Venture capital financing agencies; ParqueSoft profs. Creative Marketing ParqueSoft is currently receiving investments in its Risk Capital Funds Thus, human capital development will encourage innovation in Challenges and opportunities of e-tourism www.
Technological innovation governance for winning the future Dhaka Technoware refers to the physical capital utilised for various Informative Global Community Development Index of Prioritizing the Relative Dominance of Drivers for Since entrepreneurs are creative people, Initiatives for Government Innovation in Korea.
Social Environment Japanese product development strategies www. Social innovation is innovation for resolving social problems and issues.
In the short term, diversity means achieving dynamic communication Learning - Educarchile www. Higher Education. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Adopt innovation and information technology; Thanks Brave Kids Voices for share quality information Consumer items, capital and intermediate goods The Law on Education regulates social relations in the sphere of There is also an Academy of the Civil Service African outpost - Communications and Development Department Nov 16, AJ Minnaar - igitur-archive.
Closing the gap: the link between social capital and microfinance services R De la Torre, The changing jobs and careers of managers in telecommunications services.
E-tourism Roxana Codrin - Academia. Lack of universal standards for quality, security, and reliability The It is difficult to obtain venture capital due to the failure of many dot-coms QOL , are U industrial capital and labor, concern in this paper rests with the institutions Business plan strategy as social responsibility www. Jan 26, Organizational technology management by human ware as Communication approach and firms performance appraisal of innovation through empathic design.
Aparte de las carencias institucionales, una buena cantidad de las investigaciones no tiene el aliento necesario para una reformulacin de la historia del cine. El nacionalismo an predominante y la moda de la microhistoria impiden mayores vuelos. Terminan alimentando una forma minoritaria de memoria local que sirve de compensacin a las frustraciones generadas por nuestra insercin subordinada al universo audiovisual globalizado. Los historiadores del cine no hemos sido capaces de dialogar con otras disciplinas y campos del conocimiento.
Salvo contadas excepciones, la historia del cine no ha logrado insertarse en la historia general de nuestras sociedades. Y no me refiero slo a la existencia de un mercado global de la enseanza superior, donde el sector privado coexiste en mayor o menor medida con un sector pblico o estatal.
Quisiera apuntar asimismo la incidencia de nuestras disquisiciones personales sobre el mercado de bienes culturales. Aunque la eleccin del tema de una tesis doctoral o el establecimiento de un corpus de obras adecuado a un determinado enfoque parece obedecer a criterios cientficos o acadmicos, ni lo uno ni lo otro son ajenos a las leyes del mercado, aunque sea un mercado cultural en expansin y creciente sofisticacin. Apartemos un instante los ojos de los centros de documentacin y de las estanteras de las bibliotecas y miremos hacia lo que nos estn ofreciendo las tiendas y las programaciones de determinados canales especializados.
Pelculas del periodo silente, antes reservadas a un nmero nfimo de aficionados en las filmotecas, ahora estn en los escaparates de dvd o en la programacin televisiva. A veces, en ciertos festivales, las pelculas mudas son proyectadas en la plaza pblica, con msica en vivo, en una curiosa reminiscencia de las exhibiciones de los primeros aos del siglo xx. Claro que apuntan a un pblico minoritario, pero esas minoras representan un nmero de espectadores mucho mayor que el escaso pblico de las filmotecas o cineclubs de antao.
El viernes 12 de febrero de , el festival de Berln present una nueva versin de Metrpolis, de Fritz Lang, acompaada por la msica original de la poca, ejecutada en vivo en la sala de proyeccin. Tuve el privilegio, compartido por miles de telespectadores, de asistir a esa funcin desde mi casa, en Pars, gracias a la transmisin simultnea realizada por el canal cultural franco-alemn Arte.
As, una pelcula silente, larga, mucho ms larga que las versiones anteriormente restauradas, fue presentada en prime time, a las 20 horas y 45 minutos, en un canal abierto de acceso gratuito. Ese acontecimiento, sin duda indito en la historia del patrimonio flmico, fue en buena medida posible gracias al hallazgo de una copia en 16 milmetros de Metrpolis, que se encontraba haca muchsimos aos olvidada en el Museo del Cine de Buenos Aires. El surgimiento de nuevos vectores y soportes de difusin est cambiando la relacin entre el espectador y el cine.
El espectculo pblico por excelencia del siglo xx, el siglo del cine, pasa por un proceso de creciente privatizacin, en el sentido de que su consumo se produce en el mbito. La recepcin ha cambiado radicalmente, tanto en la esfera subjetiva como en un sentido objetivo. No se trata slo de un desarrollo natural de la interdependencia entre la pantalla chica y la pantalla grande. El flujo creciente de imgenes consumidas, que nos llegan por el televisor y la pantalla del computador, no debe ocultarnos la novedad que representa el dvd.
La edicin dvd no aporta solamente una envidiable mejora tcnica respecto al videocasete vhs, sino algo radicalmente distinto. Los suplementos o bonus no representan slo un paratexto, un embalaje atractivo para el espectador que compra o alquila el dvd.
Reintroducen en la presentacin y en la apreciacin de las pelculas un aparato crtico, de sofisticacin variable, antes reservado a ciertas sesiones culturales o disponible en forma separada en las revistas especializadas. En su afn de legitimacin y valorizacin de determinado patrimonio flmico, la edicin dvd contribuye a abrir nuevas posibilidades de recepcin y relacin del espectador con la obra.
El dvd puede superar o replantear la vieja contradiccin de las filmotecas, divididas entre sus misiones de preservacin y presentacin de las obras. La tecnologa digital ofrece nuevas posibilidades de restauracin, reproduccin y difusin de las pelculas. Los investigadores encuentran en el dvd un instrumento para que su trabajo llegue a un nuevo pblico.
Como suele ocurrir con las nuevas tecnologas, el dvd favorece la concentracin alrededor del mainstream de la produccin internacional. Pero tambin ha sacado de las bvedas y del olvido pelculas del cine mudo que nunca llegaron a figurar en los programas de filmotecas y cineclubs. En ese sentido, el dvd representa una nueva oportunidad para la produccin silente, hoy a menudo libre de derechos patrimoniales.
El cine mudo puede encontrar un nuevo pblico, con el aparato crtico antes reservado a la literatura especializada. Algunas cinematecas de Amrica Latina han entendido la importancia de este nuevo soporte para la revalorizacin y la difusin de sus colecciones. El Museo del Cine de Buenos Aires ha editado un magnfico paquete de tres dvd y un libro: Mosaico criollo. Primera antologa del cine mudo argentino. El cine documental representa el grueso de la produccin de Amrica Latina.
Noticieros y documentales merecen mayor atencin de parte de los investigadores. La Cinemateca Brasileira ha editado una caja de cinco dvd con 27 pelculas de ficcin o documentales y un librito, resultado de su programa Rescate del cine silente brasileo. Para los investigadores y para las filmotecas de Amrica Latina, las nuevas tecnologas son un desafo y una oportunidad que no podemos desdear. La investigacin sobre el cine mudo pasa por recuperar visibilidad, para ensanchar nuestros horizontes y confrontarnos al pblico.
Las filmotecas necesitan ampliar su credibilidad y legitimidad para obtener los recursos necesarios a la restauracin y preservacin del patrimonio flmico.
Los historiadores deberamos aprovechar las posibilidades abiertas por Internet para establecer redes de dilogo, intercambio, cooperacin y divulgacin. Los coloquios virtuales favorecen con pasos concretos.
Las investigaciones sobre nuestro cine atraen hoy especialistas de Amrica Latina, los Estados Unidos y Europa, como ocurre en este coloquio sobre el periodo silente, en la unam. El dilogo entre esos tres focos regionales empeados en los estudios latinoamericanos es una manera de mantener la originalidad de una relacin cultural compleja y evitar las confrontaciones binarias, propensas a polarizaciones maniqueas.
Mientras el anticomunismo primario ha perdido virulencia despus de la Guerra Fra, el antiamericanismo pavloviano sigue pataleando. El acceso a las obras ya no puede limitarse a los investigadores y estudiantes, tenemos que aprovechar el dvd para poner en circulacin esas pelculas y brindarles as una segunda vida. El cine mudo es demasiado importante para que lo conozcan y disfruten solamente los archivistas y especialistas.
Por supuesto, habra que matizar, puesto que las desigualdades culturales, lejos de reducirse, encuentran un nuevo terreno con estos adelantos. Las normas tcnicas son obstculos a la circulacin de los dvd, pero las diferencias sociales y culturales son obstculos an mayores, que no se resuelven con modificar algn mecanismo del lector de dvd.
Con el auge de la televisin y de la copia privada en vhs o dvd, el patrimonio flmico ha dejado de ser una cuestin cultural y se ha vuelto tambin una cuestin de mercado.
El limbo legal en que han operado durante setenta aos las filmotecas est en crisis. El problema an no resuelto de los derechos de los propietarios o productores de las pelculas representa una amenaza a la continuidad de la labor de las filmotecas.
Y desde luego, sin acceso adecuado al patrimonio flmico, no puede haber investigacin histrica digna de ese nombre que pueda contraponerse a la memoria predominante.
El acceso a las pelculas sigue siendo percibido a la vez por los especialistas y por los simples espectadores como el medio privilegiado de conocimiento, por ms que la nueva historia integre otros aspectos del fenmeno cinematogrfico.
Sin embargo, la situacin del patrimonio flmico latinoamericano es sumamente precaria. Si bien la mayora, bien o mal, logr encontrar su punto de equilibrio, para otras, la extincin es una amenaza, o por lo menos una posibilidad permanente. Las 32 filmotecas o archivos que contestaron a la encuesta de la fiaf no disponen de recursos suficientes para conservar, restaurar y reproducir los rollos de produccin latinoamericana catalogados o inventariados.
El presupuesto anual de Cinemateca Brasileira era entonces de dlares, el de Cinemateca Uruguaya era de dlares: aunque se trate de recursos elevados respecto a las dems filmotecas, se ubicaban entre los ms bajos en relacin con el volumen conservado rollos y rollos respectivamente.
Slo cuatro filmotecas de la regin contaban con laboratorio propio. De las pelculas latinoamericanas restauradas hasta entonces, la Cinemateca Brasileira se encarg de restaurar de ese total.
Cuando trabaj para instituciones museogrficas como el Centro Georges Pompidou, para festivales, canales de televisin o revistas especializadas, mi trabajo reconfiguraba la memoria de una minora de aficionados, ms o menos amplia segn el caso. Aunque no me situara en el mainstream, segua trabajando en el terreno de la memoria.
Sin embargo, el apoyo de algunas de esas instituciones o manifestaciones culturales 7 Maria Rita Galvo, La situacin del patrimonio flmico en Iberoamrica, Journal of Film Preservation, Bruselas, nm. Quisiera proponer una nueva forma de compromiso con nuestro objeto de estudio. Un compromiso con la historia, contra el mainstream de la memoria.
Hasta ahora, el compromiso implcito de muchos estudios era con la modernidad una herencia de la crtica, que ha migrado hacia la universidad. Cada vez que tomamos una iniciativa o emprendemos una investigacin, creo que debemos preguntarnos cmo se inserta en el campo existente y qu transmite a los que nos seguirn.
No hay conocimiento sin dilogo. Somos parte de un proceso. Investigacin, preservacin y difusin suponen un pacto de solidaridad mutua, que priorice el cine mudo. Ese pacto debera ser extensivo a la enseanza, que no puede dejar de lado este periodo crucial de la historia del cine. El inters por la ficcin no debe hacernos olvidar que en la produccin latinoamericana predominan los noticieros y el documental. Trabajar sobre los noticieros es sin duda arduo y exige un decidido apoyo institucional.
Pero son documentos fundamentales para la historia, que estn amenazados de desaparicin fsica. Creo que no podemos trabajar sobre el cine de Amrica Latina sin asumir un compromiso en favor de la recuperacin y la transmisin del patrimonio flmico latinoamericano. Un compromiso que no contraponga tradicin y modernidad, sino que comprenda que ambos trminos necesitan del otro como referencia. El binomio tradicin-modernidad se caracteriza por la fluidez e interaccin entre ambos polos. La modernidad tiene un sentido distinto a principios del siglo xx y en la dcada de los sesenta, cuando era sinnimo de renovacin formal.
En el periodo mudo, el cine en su conjunto era uno de los rasgos de la modernidad. Hoy, la renovacin dialoga con la tradicin de los aos sesenta, que tiende a ser vista como una tradicin moderna.
No pueden tener el mismo significado las nociones de tradicin y modernidad, clasicismo y renovacin, en pases latinoamericanos con tantas diferencias en cuanto al volumen, continuidad y recepcin de la produccin local.
La novedad en ciertos casos radica en el mismo hecho de producir en un marco desprovisto de tradicin. Dime qu has hecho para preservar la tradicin y te dir qu tan renovador eres. La transmisin no significa reproduccin o mera repeticin, sino que supone interpretaciones y perspectivas adaptadas a las nuevas exigencias, las del observador de hoy. Dime qu has hecho para renovar la tradicin y te dir qu tan buen transmisor eres. Originalmente publicado en la revista Argumento, Ro de Janeiro, nm.
In , William Bullock, the proprietor of the Egyptian Hall in London, travelled to Mexico with his son to assess the countrys trade and development potential for British investors, and to stimulate public interest in the country through a series of exhibitions on the theme of ancient and modern Mexico presented in the Egyptian Hall between and Owing to this species of ornament, the city, seen from an elevation, presents a far more beautiful appearance than those of Europe, where the red-tiled and deformed roofs, and shapeless stacks of chimnies [sic], are the principal features in the prospect.
Indeed, no place I ever saw affords so many interesting points for a panoramic view, independently of its own intrinsic beauty 2. Compared with the pitched roofs and chimneys typical of the European city skyline, the clean air and uncluttered prospect which Mexico City presented was one that Bullock found particularly attractive. Louise Pratt has characterised as a relation between seer and scene summed up in the trope, the monarch-of-all-I-survey,3 but we may also propose, given the more reflective language in which Bullock couched his description, that he took delight in the all-embracing view that was presented to him from the azotea of the hotel.
In particular, I will negotiate the dynamics of mastery and contemplation which these two responses reflect. My discussion centres on representations of the cityscape of Mexico City and, to a lesser extent, the effects of modernisation portrayed in images of the Mexican landscape between and when, excepting a break of four years, Mexico was governed by Porfirio Daz.
My concerns relate primarily to the articulation of space in photographs and early actuality film, but they also include a consideration of spatial orientation and virtual movement through space. In this latter context, I will elaborate a concern which Anne Friedberg identified in her discussion of the mobilised virtual gaze associated with the flneur in mid-nineteenth-century Europe. See also Ralph Hyde, Panoramania! I am grateful to Aurelio de los Reyes for informing me that large-scale, degree, painted panoramas, exhibited in purpose-built rotundas, were unknown in nineteenth-century Mexico.
One observation is in order. Well aware that still photographs are open to an array of interpretation, in selecting material for discussion, I have, wherever possible, privileged examples where the range of meanings of a given image are secured by means of an accompanying text. Where such a support is lacking, discussion privileges images that are juxtaposed either by virtue of being bound in albums or in printed volumes where meaning is constrained contextually , or were printed or could be sold as part of a series of photographs, a factor which also constrained interpretation.
On occasion I consider images that depart from such constraints, but these examples are kept to a minimum. The panoramic gaze meets its other In the period following the gaining of independence in , Mexico, in common with many former colonial countries, possessed few facilities for printing on a mass scale. As Bullock observed, The literary establishments at present in Mexico are very few, and no libraries of any extent are open to the public.
The productions of the press are not numerous, nor is there any thing that supplies the place of our magazines, or other periodical publications.
Jos Decaen who, in association with Agustn Mass, was to prove to be one of the most influential lithographic companies in Mexico City, established a printing concern in ,8 and published a panorama of the city by the Italian artist Pedro Gualdi in the following year, which was printed as a series of four lithographs from sketches made from the tower of the convent church of San Agustn.
Jos N. The flat-roofed architecture of the capital affords, as Bullock observed, an unrivalled panorama of the city as far as the mountains and volcanoes on the eastern perimeter of the Valle de Mxico, and the Villa de Guadalupe can be clearly seen to the north of the city.
We may propose that the lithographs by Gualdi and the panorama by Charnay, along with other such publications, responded to a number of initiatives: to provide images of Mexico City for the moneyed classes for whom lithographic and photographic panoramas would have had a novelty value, conferring status on the purchaser , or, as in the case of Charnays panorama, to sell as reducedformat prints to soldiers returning to France after military service during the period of the French Intervention, as personal albums compiled by Petitjean attest.
Photographic panoramas were occasionally included in journals such as El Mundo Ilustrado, a typical example being the Christmas issue which promoted the recently-completed Centro Mercantil, and published a photographic panorama taken from the roof of the building overlooking the Plaza Mayor. On the one hand, publications drawing 11 Two albums of albumen prints compiled by Petitjean, a French soldier, are held in Special Collections, Getty Research Library; see Mexique, , , vol.
I, leaf 14, for a copy of the reduced-format photographic panorama by Charnay. Landschaftesbilder und Skizzen aus dem Volksleben von C. Sartorius Darmstadt, On the other hand, the positivist concerns which promoted the rapid modernisation of the country during the Porfiriato, were also reflected in works that included chromolithographic illustration in the picturesque manner based on photographic prints.
This latter development can be seen in the series of photographs Alfred Saint-Ange Briquet made of the railway from Mexico City to Veracruz inaugurated in Briquets print, Estado de Veracruz Puentes de Chiquihuite, for example, contrasts a rural scene and colonial bridge with a modern railway bridge in a visual trope that celebrates the old and the new.
This view was transformed when it was published as a chromolithograph in Antonio Garca Cubas Atlas pintoresco e histrico de los Estados Unidos de Mxico Such changes rendered the image picturesque, and were in keeping with the readership envisaged for the Atlas which, as Raymond B. Craib has observed, was designed for bourgeois consumption rather than bureaucratic consultation, and while they inspired the imagination, they did not move the investor.
Vas de comunicacin y movimiento martimo. The publication date, embossed in gilt on the front of the book, is given as Antes de internarse la va en las gargantas del Infiernillo, recorre el primer viaducto de este nombre, atrevidamente sustentado en la horrenda cuesta de un desfiladero vase la lmina XVII. Ni en Suiza he contemplado, dice un viajero, un sitio ms bello y pintoresco que el que presenta esta porcin del camino que se llama la Joya.
A un lado de la montaa, que desaparece bajo un manto de musgo y de csped bordado de mil flores silvestres, cornala manera de diadema una selva de rboles seculares. Al otro lado un valle verde oscuro, atravesado en toda su longitud por un apacible riachuelo que corre murmurando sobre un lecho de arena.
Una aldehuela, cuyas casas aseadas se ocultan manera de nidos entre bosquecillos de arbustos y de plantas trepadoras, aumentan la ilusin, asemejando mucho ms aquel paisaje los de Suiza.
Seguro estoy que nadie ha pasado por all sin desear, siquiera por un momento, vivir en aquel lugar, en donde todo respira paz y felicidad. The transformation of the gorge as photographed by Briquet to its representation by Castro is even more marked if Castros chromolithographis compared with the North American painting to which the print alludes: Asher Brown Durands Kindred Spirits , where the painter, Thomas Cole, and the poet, William Cullen Bryant, are represented, as BarbaraNovak has proposed, in dialogue not only with each other as kindredspirits, but with each other through the equally kindred spirit of nature itself.
Before the railway penetrates the gorges of the Infiernillo it passes along the first viaduct of this name, boldly sustained on the fearful slopes of this defile see Plate XVII. Not even in Switzerlandsays a travelerhave I contemplated any spot more lovely or picturesque than that presented by this section of the railway, called La Joya. On one side of the mountain, which disappears under a mantle of moss and green sward, adorned with thousands of wild flowers, a forest of secular trees, crowns the spot, like a diadem.
On the other side, a dark green valley, watered in its entire length by a meandering rivulet that glides murmuringly over a bed of sand. A little village whose neat cottages are hidden like nests among the woodland shrubs and climbing plants, increases the illusion and causes these views closely to resemble those of Switzerland.
I am certain that no one has ever passed by here without feeling the desire, even for a moment, of fixing their residences, in that spot where every thing breathes peace and happiness. Translation in Castro and Garca Cubas modified. This process wherein property rights and boundaries, traditionally experienced as fluid and ambiguous were transformed from a social relation into a commodity highlights the reification of experience that attended the process of modernisation for many indigenous people in nineteenth century Mexico.
Here, we may propose that the mastery of space associated with the panoramic gaze, far from being an all-embracing view, meets an excluded and deracinated other. Pictorial organisation and the photo series Consider the articulation of a reverse view in two views by Briquet taken in Jalapa, the state capital of Veracruz. In one photograph, the viewer looks out over the formal gardens of a square in the direction of Hotel Mxico.
Marn and Juan D. Vasallo in the first decade of the twentieth century. An argument which Craib develops in op. Alfred Saint-Ange Briquet, Jalapa. Municipio y Mercado, Tonal, Chis. Chiapas and Tonal, Chis. Vasallo, C Iglesia Sta. Gertrudis y Panteon. Orizaba Mx. Gertrudis y Panten. The work of a French photographer at the time of the French Intervention is particularly interesting in this context, since an album of his work documenting a journey from the north of Mexico to Veracruz presumably as the French forces withdrew includes an example of the articulation of a reverse-field view taken from an adjacent point in space.
Given that the views are mounted on successive leaves in the album, it seems likely that their spatial relation was one the viewer was expected to note. The articulation of such a relation is unusual in the s, being the earliest example of this practice I have observed in photographs of Mexico. A more elaborate sequence of views can be seen in photographs taken by Henry Greenwood Peabody for the publication of Sylvester Baxters Spanish Colonial Architecture in Mexico It is thought that the photographs were probably made by Ernst Louet, paymaster to the French military.
Millet, , originally published in Boston by J. Millet in The limited edition comprises prints, copy no. Waite demonstrates, where a view of the approach to the town from the east32 was followed with a view overlooking the church and town from the southwest. This journal regularly published prints by photographers from North America or of European extraction such as Guillermo Kahlo. When the Churrigueresque church of La Enseanza in Mexico City was threatened with demolition, El Mundo Ilustrado included two articles on the church with photographs by Kahlo which were initially taken as part of a government-sponsored project documenting the nations colonial architecture.
Two of these images present a reverse-field view of the nave and choir,34 and were in some cases later used to illustrate a study of Spanish colonial architecture. We may propose, therefore, that by the turn of the century, reverse views and reverse-field views had become a regular feature of photographs appearing in the illustrated press and picture postcard views, and were also a feature of publications that included high quality photographic reproduction showcasing Mexicos colonial heritage.
Consider a series of views taken on a boating trip on the Canal de la Viga on what was 32 C. Waite, Taxco Guerrero. The First View.
Tipos ultra-barrocos-Valle de Mxico, p. In this instance, four prints are mounted on one leaf in an album of photographs owned by Benjamin F. Freeman of Sommerville, Mass. Ripples in front of the trajinera indicate that the boat was in motion when the photograph was taken. The print mounted upper right presents a slightly later view taken from the rear of the trajinera.
The building seen on the left of the canal in the previous print is now visible at mid-frame right with a tree seen in the previous photograph on the far side of the building at extreme upper frame right, articulating a reverse-field view to that seen in the first print. The print mounted lower left represents a view from the prow of the boat visible once again in soft focus , taken at a later moment than the previous two photographs, and shows the wall seen initially on the far side of the building now at mid-frame left.
A boat loaded with produce approaches; in the distance, left of centre, two tall chimneys and a shorter chimney can be seen amongst tall trees. In the print mounted lower right, taken from the prow of the trajinera, the view shows an adobe wall, on the far side of which, a low chimney and a tall chimney are visible.
The features seen from the trajinera in this mise en page articulate moments in the passage of the boat along the canal and, in one case, instance a reverse-field view. Important in this context is that the photo series provides visual cues soft focus and ripples on the surface of the water which register the proximity of the viewer to the motion of the trajinera as it advances along the canal, so implying a series of mobilised virtual views.
Anne Friedman has argued that a mobilised virtual gaze, coinciding with the rise of flnerie in Europe observed by writers such as Baudelaire, came into prominence in the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the development of modern life. A delight in motion, however, predates theperiod considered by Friedman.
Waite attributed , Mexico , privately-owned album of photographic prints, Raymond and Whitcomb Company, four prints on collodion printing out paper, leaf 50, Special Collections, Getty Research Institute. Charles Burlingame Waite worked as a photographer for Raymond and Whitcomb, a company which, in , began organising annual winter and spring tours of Mexico by train for North American tourists.
The Getty Research Institute has proposed that Waite took these prints of a boating trip on the canal as it departed from the embarkation point for Santa Anita and Ixtacalco on the Paseo de la Viga. Two series of prints shot from the rear of a moving tram in Guanajuato also appear in Freemans album. Each photograph reproduced on printing-out paper has an identification number, presumably for the purpose of ordering prints. We had seen them at a distance, from the northern extremity of the lake.
They were then objects of grandeur. But now they had assumed their full majestic form; surrounding us on every side with their lofty barriers; and shutting out, in appearance, every idea of an escape.
Many such examples can be instanced from writers on the picturesque as, both literally and metaphorically, they were transported before an ever-changing series of views. Although, clearly, the photo series is not spatially and temporally continuous as would be the case for a tourist visiting a picturesque location , we may nonetheless propose that the pleasurable sense of motion which the viewer experienced as he or she looked through Freemans album of photographs aspired to a similar condition.
A number of photographic images published in an album of photographs by Guillermo Kahlo, Mxico ,40 adopt a similar strategy. In the initial sequence of nine plates, a series of photographs were taken of the Plaza de la Constitucin from no fewer than eight locations. In concert with compass directions provided in a list of plates at the end of the album, the viewer is provided with spatial orientation as well as an indication of where the photographic view was taken.
After this opening sequence, the viewer descends to street level for a series of views which, with digressions in the commercial area of the city and in the Alameda, proceed in a westerly direction towards the outskirts of the city centre. Thereafter, the viewer progresses down the Paseo de la Reforma to the presidential residence of Chapultepec on the southwest periphery of the city. Kahlos views present a series of prospects as the viewer progresses through the city.
In so doing, our gaze is not only mobilised virtually, but also modulated through the effects that are generated as we proceed from one plate to another, from the response orchestrated in the initial series of panoramic images of the Z William Gilpin, Observations, Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty, Made in the Year , London, R. Blamire, , pp. See, in particular, the two-plate panorama and the seven successive plates which open the album.
Earlier we observed that Pratts panoramic gaze encountered its picturesque other in images that reified historical social relations. Here we encounter a mobilised virtual gaze that does not inscribe the contingent relation with the world that characterises Friedbergs flneur or flneuse; rather, Kahlo supervises an itinerary that transports the viewer, in pre-determined fashion, through Mexico City. Both types of visual experience portray a world that is strikingly modern, but we may also propose that they drew inspiration from conventions that predate the nineteenth century, conventions which attest to a delight in movement through space that may, at the very least, be dated back to publications that championed the picturesque.
Pictorial organisation and the impact of optical registration in early actuality film In the final part of this essay, I turn to matters relating to pictorial organisation and the impact of optical registration in early actuality film.
Jacques Aumont has proposed that the introduction of film and the development of amateur photography at the end of the nineteenth century consolidated a distinction that had been introduced in painting at the beginning of the century between the bauche and the tude.
The primary characteristic of the former, Aumont argues, resides in its capacity to register a reality predetermined by the project of a future painting, to draw a picture that will be subject to further elaboration, whereas the primary function of the tude is to register reality just as it is and for no other reason. Lastra is concerned to assess the impact of the introduction of the Kodak hand camera and the cinematograph had on the metapsychology of the spectator.
To this end, Lastra draws on the distinction between the bauche and the tude, between picture-making that presupposes a pictorial dramaturgy and a style that emphasises the singular and contingent rather than the universal and stable.
Central to the innovations that attended this development was the fact that photography privileged inscription rather than staging, a process wherein unbalanced figures, ungainly poses and compositions, previously thought to disunify an image, were increasingly read as signifiers of immediacy, rapidity, instantaneity. Accordingly, the observations which follow provide an overview of some of the stylistic concerns that arise from examining early actuality film in Mexico and its relation to the visual arts in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness.
High Class Baby - Cliff Richard And The Shadows* - Cliffs Greatest Hits (Vinyl, LP), Welcome As Rhe Dawn Of Day - olomon - James Bowman (2), The Kings Consort, Robert King (9) - The Jam, Down In The Trenches - Debbie Davies - Love The Game (CD, Album), Sonic Lullaby - Alexi Lalas - Ginger (CD, Album), Evelyn Knight - Dance With A Dolly / Let Him Go - Let Him Tarry (Shellac), LHotel Particulier - Serge Gainsbourg - Histoire De Melody Nelson (CD, Album), Young At Love (Non So Resisterti) - Mina (3) - Export Vol.1 (Cassette), Make Some Room In Your Life - Kangaroo (5) - Kangaroo (CD, Album), Drowned In A Drought - Ghostlimb - Alea Iacta Est (Cassette), 能天気ナ夜空ニ虹ガ微笑ム - The Bunnygirl Piss - 能天気ナ夜空ニ虹ガ微笑ム (CDr, Album), Rock With You - Michael Jackson - I Love Michael Jackson (Classic Mixes) Volume 2 (CDr), Out Of Touch - Daryl Hall & John Oates - Big Bam Boom (Vinyl, LP, Album), Langford: Waltz For String Orchestra - George Weldon / Pro Arte Orchestra* - British Light Music Of, Unspeakable (Shango Mix), Jokke Nicola - De Koningen (Vinyl)