Below is an alphabetical list of element symbols with the corresponding element name. Keep in mind that the names for the elements and their symbols may be different in languages other than English. Ag Silver argentum in Latin. Au Gold aurum in Latin.
Fe Iron ferrum in Latin. Hg Mercury hydrargyrum in Greek. K Potassium kalium in Medieval Latin. Na Sodium natrium in Latin, and natron in Arabic. Pb Lead plumbum in Latin. Sb Antimony stibium in Latin. It is important to know what the gamma-ray emitting material is, Kanatzidis stressed, because some materials are legal and some are illegal. Each radioactive isotope possesses its own "fingerprint": a different decay behavior and a unique characteristic gamma-ray emission spectrum.
The new cesium lead bromide detector can detect these fingerprints. In the study, the researchers found the detector successfully identified radioactive isotopes americium, cobalt, cesium and sodium The researchers also produced larger crystal samples to demonstrate the material can be scaled up.
The paper is titled "High spectral resolution of gamma-rays at room temperature by perovskite CsPbBr single crystals. Skip to main content. Jude Children's Research Hospital Like wine, environmental conditions impact flavor of whiskey, study finds Oregon State University View all latest news releases.
This instability affected the price of cobalt and also created perverse incentives for the combatants in the First and Second Congo Wars to prolong the fighting, since access to diamond mines and other valuable resources helped to finance their military goals—which frequently amounted to genocide—and also enriched the fighters themselves. While DR Congo has in the s not recently been invaded by neighboring military forces, some of the richest mineral deposits adjoin areas where Tutsis and Hutus still frequently clash, unrest continues although on a smaller scale and refugees still flee outbreaks of violence.
Cobalt extracted from small Congolese artisanal mining endeavors in supplied a single Chinese company, Congo DongFang International Mining. A subsidiary of Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt , one of the world's largest cobalt producers, Congo DongFang supplied cobalt to some of the world's largest battery manufacturers, who produced batteries for ubiquitous products like the Apple iPhones.
Corporate pieties about an ethical supply chain were thus met with some incredulity. A number of observers have called for tech corporations and other manufacturers to avoid sourcing conflict metals in Central Africa at all rather than risk enabling the financial exploitation, human rights abuses like kidnappings for unfree labor , environmental devastation and the human toll of violence, poverty and toxic conditions. It produced an estimated one-third of the total global cobalt production in In February , global asset management firm AllianceBernstein defined the DRC as economically "the Saudi Arabia of the electric vehicle age," due to its cobalt resources, as essential to the lithium-ion batteries that drive electric vehicles.
On March 9, , President Joseph Kabila updated the mining code, increasing royalty charges and declaring cobalt and coltan "strategic metals". The mining code was effectively updated on December 4, In December , International Rights Advocates, a human rights NGO, filed a landmark lawsuit against Apple , Tesla , Dell , Microsoft and Google company Alphabet for "knowingly benefiting from and aiding and abetting the cruel and brutal use of young children" in mining cobalt.
In , some exploration companies were planning to survey old silver and cobalt mines in the area of Cobalt, Ontario where significant deposits are believed to lie. In , , tonnes of cobalt was used. Cobalt-based superalloys have historically consumed most of the cobalt produced.
The development of wear-resistant cobalt alloys started in the first decade of the 20th century with the stellite alloys, containing chromium with varying quantities of tungsten and carbon. Alloys with chromium and tungsten carbides are very hard and wear-resistant. The special alloys of aluminium, nickel, cobalt and iron, known as Alnico , and of samarium and cobalt samarium-cobalt magnet are used in permanent magnets. Lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO 2 is widely used in lithium-ion battery cathodes.
The material is composed of cobalt oxide layers with the lithium intercalated. During discharge, [ clarification needed ] the lithium is released as lithium ions. Although in most cobalt in batteries was used in a mobile device,  a more recent application for cobalt is rechargeable batteries for electric cars. This industry has increased five-fold in its demand for cobalt, which makes it urgent to find new raw materials in more stable areas of the world.
Research is being conducted by the European Union on the possibility to eliminate cobalt requirements in lithium-ion battery production. Several cobalt compounds are oxidation catalysts. Cobalt acetate is used to convert xylene to terephthalic acid , the precursor of the bulk polymer polyethylene terephthalate. Typical catalysts are the cobalt carboxylates known as cobalt soaps. They are also used in paints, varnishes, and inks as "drying agents" through the oxidation of drying oils.
In addition they are used as accelerators in polyester resin systems. Cobalt-based catalysts are used in reactions involving carbon monoxide. Cobalt is also a catalyst in the Fischer—Tropsch process for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide into liquid fuels.
The hydrodesulfurization of petroleum uses a catalyst derived from cobalt and molybdenum. This process helps to clean petroleum of sulfur impurities that interfere with the refining of liquid fuels. Before the 19th century, cobalt was predominantly used as a pigment. It has been used since the Middle Ages to make smalt , a blue-colored glass. Smalt is produced by melting a mixture of roasted mineral smaltite , quartz and potassium carbonate , which yields a dark blue silicate glass, which is finely ground after the production.
Cobalt Co or 60 Co is useful as a gamma-ray source because it can be produced in predictable amounts with high activity by bombarding cobalt with neutrons.
It produces gamma rays with energies of 1. Cobalt is used in external beam radiotherapy , sterilization of medical supplies and medical waste, radiation treatment of foods for sterilization cold pasteurization ,  industrial radiography e. The metal has the unfortunate property of producing a fine dust, causing problems with radiation protection. Cobalt from radiotherapy machines has been a serious hazard when not discarded properly, and one of the worst radiation contamination accidents in North America occurred in , when a discarded radiotherapy unit containing cobalt was mistakenly disassembled in a junkyard in Juarez, Mexico.
Cobalt has a radioactive half-life of 5. Loss of potency requires periodic replacement of the source in radiotherapy and is one reason why cobalt machines have been largely replaced by linear accelerators in modern radiation therapy. Nuclear weapon designs could intentionally incorporate 59 Co, some of which would be activated in a nuclear explosion to produce 60 Co.
The 60 Co, dispersed as nuclear fallout , is sometimes called a cobalt bomb. Cobalt is essential to the metabolism of all animals. It is a key constituent of cobalamin , also known as vitamin B 12 , the primary biological reservoir of cobalt as an ultratrace element.
A minimal presence of cobalt in soils therefore markedly improves the health of grazing animals, and an uptake of 0. Proteins based on cobalamin use corrin to hold the cobalt. Coenzyme B 12 features a reactive C-Co bond that participates in the reactions.
The adenosyl version of B 12 catalyzes rearrangements in which a hydrogen atom is directly transferred between two adjacent atoms with concomitant exchange of the second substituent, X, which may be a carbon atom with substituents, an oxygen atom of an alcohol, or an amine. Although far less common than other metalloproteins e. These proteins include methionine aminopeptidase 2 , an enzyme that occurs in humans and other mammals that does not use the corrin ring of B 12 , but binds cobalt directly.
Another non-corrin cobalt enzyme is nitrile hydratase , an enzyme in bacteria that metabolizes nitriles. In the early 20th century, during the development of farming on the North Island Volcanic Plateau of New Zealand, cattle suffered from what was termed "bush sickness". It was discovered that the volcanic soils lacked the cobalt salts essential for the cattle food chain.
The "coast disease" of sheep in the Ninety Mile Desert of the Southeast of South Australia in the s was found to originate in nutritional deficiencies of trace elements cobalt and copper. The cobalt deficiency was overcome by the development of "cobalt bullets", dense pellets of cobalt oxide mixed with clay given orally for lodging in the animal's rumen.
Cobalt is an essential element for life in minute amounts. However, chronic cobalt ingestion has caused serious health problems at doses far less than the lethal dose. In , the addition of cobalt compounds to stabilize beer foam in Canada led to a peculiar form of toxin-induced cardiomyopathy , which came to be known as beer drinker's cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, cobalt metal is suspected of causing cancer i.
It causes respiratory problems when inhaled. Cobalt can be effectively absorbed by charred pigs' bones; however, this process is inhibited by copper and zinc, which have greater affinities to bone char.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical element with atomic number This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Cobalt disambiguation. See also: Category:Cobalt compounds.
Main article: Organocobalt chemistry. Main article: Isotopes of cobalt. See also: Cobalt extraction. See also: Conflict minerals , child labor , and strip mining. Main article: Cobalt poisoning. GHS hazard statements. GHS precautionary statements. Pure and Applied Chemistry. Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of the elements: technical data, history, processing, applications.
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