We could either resort to shortcuts by compromising on the principle of honesty — the basis of all human endeavours — or we could choose to be honest no matter how difficult the path or how long it takes to reach our destination. Such is the working of this Law. When we ride on success by deceiving people in the process, existence makes sure that though we may acquire the object we had set out for, our physical or mental state will not allow us to enjoy it.
View all records. MyHeritage Family Trees. John was born on December 17 , in Liberton, Midlothian, Scotland. Celia was born on December 24 , in Scotland. William married Josephine Grossart born Berny. William lived in , at address , Nebraska. He lived in , at address , Nebraska.
He lived circa , at address , Nebraska. William passed away on month day , at age 49 at death place , Nebraska. He was buried in month , at burial place , Nebraska. Documents of William M Grossart. William married Josephine Grossart. They had 3 children: Pauline Grossart and 2 other children. William had 9 siblings: Lena Grossart , Isabel Grossart and 7 other siblings. William married Josephine Grossert. They had 5 children: Lillian Grossert , Lila Grossert and 3 other children. William lived in month , at address , Nebraska.
Ebenezer was born on December 25 , in Liberton, Midlothian. Jane was born in Calculated: , in Eddleston, Peeblesshire. William had 8 siblings: Ebenezer Grosart , Robert Grossart and 6 other siblings. William married Margaret Grossart born Richardson on month day , at age 26 at marriage place. Margaret was born on October 21 , in Duddingston, Midlothian. William lived in , at address. His occupation was occupation. William passed away of cause of death on month day , at age 60 at death place.
Documents of William Grossart. A common misconception regarding the Kama Sutra is the assumption by non-eastern cultures that the text is itself a guidebook to rituals relating to tantric sex. Tantra , in the simplest terms, is a state referring to mastery of the self - which in western cultures has become associated with highly ritualized sexual prowess. In truth, while sexual positions are dictated pragmatically in the text, and the text exemplifies how desire can aid in unleashing the full extent of an individual's personal power, these dictations are intended more as guidelines for virtuous living.
The Kama Sutra does not relate to tantric rites or practices, nor is it a sacred doctrine of sexual rituals. In the grand scheme of things, the description of sexual desires and positions is very small, and is intended primarily to help individuals reach the full potential of one of the four virtuous goals of existence.
If one picks a copy of the Kama Sutra in a bookstore or searches for the text online, it is paramount to Hindu culture to ensure the text is complete and not merely an abridgement of the single chapter on sexual positions. To read this portion outside the context of the entire book is to misrepresent, and therefore misunderstand, a text which has had great significance in Indian society. The Kama Sutra contains more than just sexual positions.
Art of Legend India. It is due to instances such as these that modern knowledge of the Kama Sutra is so misguided. With time, perhaps the Kama Sutra can once again be enjoyed as it was meant to be by Vatsyayana. As awareness of the genuine nature of the text is spread, so too will the true meaning behind this work be better understood.
Top Image: The Kama Sutra discusses love, pleasure, and human sexuality. Source: Public Domain. Indra Sinha. Accessed October 19, This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 4. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Dec 17, Melissa rated it really liked it. Oh yeah Jun 18, Poisonarrow: rated it it was amazing. Feb 23, Nadia rated it really liked it.
Ohohoo I have only seen a bit of this book at the store but I have to say someday I shall buy it ;D. Jul 12, Debbie added it. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. During sex, the text recommends going with the flow and mirroring with abhiyoga and samprayoga. Other techniques of foreplay and sexual intimacy described in the kamasutra include various forms of holding and embraces grahana , upaguhana , mutual massage and rubbing mardana , pinching and biting, using fingers and hands to stimulate karikarakrida , nadi-kshobana , anguli-pravesha , three styles of jihva-pravesha french kissing , and many styles of fellatio and cunnlingus.
The Kamasutra , states the Indologist and Sanskrit literature scholar Ludo Rocher , discourages adultery but then devotes "not less than fifteen sutras 1.
According to Doniger, the Kamasutra teaches adulterous sexual liaison as a means for a man to predispose the involved woman in assisting him, as a strategic means to work against his enemies and to facilitate his successes. It also explains the signs and reasons a woman wants to enter into an adulterous relationship and when she does not want to commit adultery. The Kamasutra has been one of the unique sources of sociological information and cultural milieu of ancient India.
It shows a "near total disregard of class varna and caste jati ", states Doniger. In the pages of the Kamasutra , lovers are "not upper-class" but they "must be rich" enough to dress well, pursue social leisure activities, buy gifts and surprise the lover. In the rare mention of caste found in the text, it is about a man finding his legal wife and the advice that humorous stories to seduce a woman should be about "other virgins of same jati caste ".
In general, the text describes sexual activity between men and women across class and caste, both in urban and rural settings. The Kamasutra includes verses describing homosexual relations such as oral sex between two men, as well as between two women. According to Doniger, the Kamasutra discusses same-sex relationships through the notion of the tritiya prakriti , literally, "third sexuality" or "third nature". In Redeeming the Kamasutra, Doniger states that "the Kamasutra departs from the dharmic view of homosexuality in significant ways", where the term kliba appears.
In contemporary translations, this has been inaccurately rendered as "eunuch" — or, a castrated man in a harem, [note 1] and the royal harem did not exist in India before the Turkish presence in the ninth century. The Kamasutra does not use the pejorative term kliba at all, but speaks instead of a "third nature" or, in the sexual behavior context as the "third sexuality".
The text states that there are two sorts of "third nature", one where a man behaves like a woman, and in the other, a woman behaves like a man. In one of the longest consecutive sets of verses describing a sexual act, the Kamasutra describes fellatio technique between a man dressed like a woman performing fellatio on another man.
The Kamasutra also mentions "pretend play" sadomasochism,   and group sex. The historical records suggest that the Kamasutra was a well-known and popular text in Indian history, states Wendy Doniger. This popularity through the Mughal Empire era is confirmed by its regional translations. The Mughals, states Doniger, had "commissioned lavishly illustrated Persian and Sanskrit Kamasutra manuscripts". He did not translate it, but did edit it to suit the Victorian British attitudes.
The unedited translation was produced by the Indian scholar Bhagwan Lal Indraji with the assistance of a student Shivaram Parshuram Bhide, under the guidance of Burton's friend, the Indian civil servant Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot.
The Burton version of the Kamasutra was produced in an environment where Victorian mindset and Protestant proselytizers were busy finding faults and attacking Hinduism and its culture, rejecting as "filthy paganism" anything sensuous and sexual in Hindu arts and literature.
The "Hindus were cowering under their scorn", states Doniger, and the open discussion of sex in the Kamasutra scandalized the 19th-century Europeans. Yet, states Doniger, it became soon after its publication in , "one of the most pirated books in the English language", widely copied, reprinted and republished sometimes without Richard Burton's name. Burton made two important contributions to the Kamasutra. First, he had the courage to publish it in the colonial era against the political and cultural mores of the British elite.
He creatively found a way to subvert the then prevalent censorship laws of Britain under the Obscene Publications Act of For example, the original Sanskrit Kamasutra does not use the words lingam or yoni for sexual organs, and almost always uses other terms. Burton adroitly avoided being viewed as obscene to the Victorian mindset by avoiding the use of words such as penis, vulva, vagina and other direct or indirect sexual terms in the Sanskrit text to discuss sex, sexual relationships and human sexual positions.
Burton used the terms lingam and yoni instead throughout the translation. However, Burton's Kamasutra gave a unique, specific meaning to these words in the western imagination.
The problems with Burton mistranslation are many, states Doniger. First, the text "simply does not say what Burton says it says". Third, it changes the force of words in the original text. For example, when a woman says "Stop! It has led to a misunderstanding of the text and created the wrong impression of it being ancient "Hindu pornography".
In , S. Upadhyaya published his translation as the Kamasutra of Vatsyayana: Complete Translation from the Original. He includes English translations of two important commentaries, one by Jayamangala commentary, and a more modern commentary by Devadatta Shastri, as endnotes. He, at times, reverses the object and subject, making the woman the subject and man the object when the Kamasutra is explicitly stating the reverse.
According to Doniger, "even this cryptic text [ Kamasutra ] is not infinitely elastic" and such creative reinterpretations do not reflect the text.
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