He also received lessons in composition from Ferdinando Paer and Antonio Salieri , who was then the music director of the Viennese court. He was greeted in Austrian and Hungarian aristocratic circles and also met Beethoven and Schubert. Adam Liszt, therefore, took his leave of the Prince's services. At the end of April , the family returned to Hungary for the last time.
At the end of May , the family went to Vienna again. Towards the end of or early , Liszt's first composition to be published, his Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli now S. This anthology, commissioned by Anton Diabelli , includes 50 variations on his waltz by 50 different composers Part II , Part I being taken up by Beethoven's 33 variations on the same theme, which are now separately better known simply as his Diabelli Variations , Op.
Liszt's inclusion in the Diabelli project—he was described in it as "an year-old boy, born in Hungary"—was almost certainly at the instigation of Czerny, his teacher, and also a participant. Liszt was the only child composer in the anthology.
After his father's death in , Liszt moved to Paris; for the next five years, he was to live with his mother in a small apartment. He gave up touring. To earn money, Liszt gave lessons in piano playing and composition, often from early morning until late at night. His students were scattered across the city and he often had to cover long distances. Because of this, he kept uncertain hours and also took up smoking and drinking—all habits he would continue throughout his life. The following year, he fell in love with one of his pupils, Caroline de Saint-Cricq, the daughter of Charles X 's minister of commerce, Pierre de Saint-Cricq.
Her father, however, insisted that the affair be broken off. He again stated a wish to join the Church but was dissuaded this time by his mother. Equally important for Liszt was Urhan's earnest championship of Schubert, which may have stimulated his own lifelong devotion to that composer's music. During this period, Liszt read widely to overcome his lack of general education, and he soon came into contact with many of the leading authors and artists of his day, including Victor Hugo , Alphonse de Lamartine and Heinrich Heine.
He composed practically nothing in these years. Nevertheless, the July Revolution of inspired him to sketch a Revolutionary Symphony based on the events of the "three glorious days," and he took a greater interest in events surrounding him.
He met Hector Berlioz on 4 December , the day before the premiere of the Symphonie fantastique. Berlioz's music made a strong impression on Liszt, especially later when he was writing for orchestra.
He also inherited from Berlioz the diabolic quality of many of his works. Paris in the s had become the nexus for pianistic activities, with dozens of pianists dedicated to perfection at the keyboard. Some, such as Sigismond Thalberg and Alexander Dreyschock , focused on specific aspects of technique, e.
While it has since been referred to as the "flying trapeze" school of piano playing, this generation also solved some of the most intractable problems of piano technique, raising the general level of performance to previously unimagined heights. Liszt's strength and ability to stand out in this company was in mastering all the aspects of piano technique cultivated singly and assiduously by his rivals. In , he made transcriptions of several works by Berlioz including the Symphonie fantastique.
His chief motive in doing so, especially with the Symphonie , was to help the poverty-stricken Berlioz, whose symphony remained unknown and unpublished. Liszt bore the expense of publishing the transcription himself and played it many times to help popularize the original score. In , Liszt began his relationship with the Countess Marie d'Agoult. Under the influence of both, Liszt's creative output exploded.
In , the countess left her husband and family to join Liszt in Geneva; Liszt's daughter with the countess, Blandine, was born there on 18 December. In these essays, he argued for the raising of the artist from the status of a servant to a respected member of the community. For the next four years, Liszt and the countess lived together, mainly in Switzerland and Italy, where their daughter, Cosima , was born in Como , with occasional visits to Paris.
On 9 May , Liszt's and the countess's only son, Daniel, was born, but that autumn relations between them became strained. Doing so meant returning to the life of a touring virtuoso [ citation needed ] The countess returned to Paris with the children, while Liszt gave six concerts in Vienna, then toured Hungary.
For the next eight years Liszt continued to tour Europe, spending holidays with the countess and their children on the island of Nonnenwerth on the Rhine in the summers of and In spring , the couple finally separated.
Honors were showered on him and he met with adulation wherever he went. Moreover, his great fame as a pianist, which he would continue to enjoy long after he had officially retired from the concert stage, was based mainly on his accomplishments during this time.
During his virtuoso heyday, Liszt was described by the writer Hans Christian Andersen as a "slim young man He was promoted to the second degree and elected master as a member of the lodge "Zur Eintracht", in Berlin. Women fought over his silk handkerchiefs and velvet gloves, which they ripped to shreds as souvenirs.
This atmosphere was fuelled in great part by the artist's mesmeric personality and stage presence. Many witnesses later testified that Liszt's playing raised the mood of audiences to a level of mystical ecstasy. Liszt never used 'Dr. Liszt' or 'Dr. Franz Liszt' publicly.
Ferdinand Hiller , a rival of Liszt at the time, was allegedly highly jealous of the decision made by the university. Adding to his reputation was the fact that Liszt gave away much of his proceeds to charity and humanitarian causes in his whole life. In fact, Liszt had made so much money by his mid-forties that virtually all his performing fees after went to charity. There were also private donations to hospitals, schools, and charitable organizations such as the Leipzig Musicians Pension Fund.
In February , Liszt played in Kiev. There he met the Polish Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein , who was to become one of the most significant people in the rest of his life. She persuaded him to concentrate on composition, which meant giving up his career as a traveling virtuoso. After a tour of the Balkans, Turkey, and Russia that summer, Liszt gave his final concert for pay at Yelisavetgrad in September.
He spent the winter with the princess at her estate in Woronince. The following year, Liszt took up a long-standing invitation of Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia to settle at Weimar , where he had been appointed Kapellmeister Extraordinaire in , remaining there until He also wrote articles championing Berlioz and Wagner. Finally, Liszt had ample time to compose and during the next 12 years revised or produced those orchestral and choral pieces upon which his reputation as a composer mainly rested.
During those twelve years, he also helped raise the profile of the exiled Wagner by conducting the overtures of his operas in concert, Liszt and Wagner would have a profound friendship that lasted until Wagner's death in Venice in Princess Carolyne lived with Liszt during his years in Weimar. She eventually wished to marry Liszt, but since she had been previously married and her husband, Russian military officer Prince Nikolaus zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg — , was still alive, she had to convince the Roman Catholic authorities that her marriage to him had been invalid.
After huge efforts and a monstrously intricate process, she was temporarily successful September Although Liszt arrived in Rome on 21 October, the marriage was made impossible by a letter that had arrived the previous day to the Pope himself. It appears that both her husband and the Tsar of Russia had managed to quash permission for the marriage at the Vatican. The Russian government also impounded her several estates in the Polish Ukraine, which made her later marriage to anybody unfeasible.
The s were a period of great sadness in Liszt's private life. On 13 December , he lost his year-old son Daniel, and, on 11 September , his year-old daughter Blandine also died. In letters to friends, Liszt announced that he would retreat to a solitary living. He found it at the monastery Madonna del Rosario , just outside Rome, where on 20 June , he took up quarters in a small, spartan apartment.
On 25 April , he received the tonsure at the hands of Cardinal Hohenlohe. On 31 July , he received the four minor orders of porter , lector , exorcist , and acolyte. On 14 August , he was made an honorary canon of Albano. On some occasions, Liszt took part in Rome's musical life. Editorial Montesinos. Consultado el 24 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 8 de julio de Consultado el 11 de julio de Archivado desde el original el 15 de diciembre de Winkler: Adam Liszt: Charakterstudie eines Vaters.
En Franz Liszt. Ein Genie aus dem pannonischen Raum. En Oxford Music Online, ed. Grove Music Online. Consultado el 20 de noviembre de After the golden age: romantic pianism and modern performance.
Oxford University Press. Consultado el 4 de octubre de Archivado desde el original el 30 de junio de Notice bibliographique sur Franz Liszt. Archivado desde el original el 10 de febrero de Saffle, Michael Franz Liszt: a guide to research.
En Stanley Sadie, ed. Londres : Macmillan. Archivado desde el original el 16 de julio de Arnim B. Shelley P. Schlegel F. Schlegel Schopenhauer Schleiermacher Tieck Wackenroder. Categorias ocultas:! Wikimedia Commons. Franz Liszt fotografado por Louis Held. Marie d'Agoult. Filho s. Alma mater. In leerde hij tijdens een concertreis in Rusland prinses Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein kennen. Van een huwelijk is het echter niet gekomen, daar de katholieke kerk de ontbinding van het huwelijk tussen prinses Carolyne en haar echtgenoot, prins Nicholas zu Sayn-Wittgenstein , verbood.
Na moeizame pogingen om toch tot een huwelijk te komen die in definitief strandden , bleven ze slechts vrienden. In vestigde hij zich in Weimar , waar hij als dirigent actief was en componeerde. Deze adellijke titel heeft hij echter in latere jaren nooit gebruikt.
Het is mogelijk dat Pius IX zelf een hand had in een dispensatie. Nadat hij de tonsuur ontvangen had, schreef hij zijn moeder dat hij subdiaken wilde blijven of misschien diaken wilde worden, maar dat hij niet van plan was priester te worden.
Het bleef echter bij subdiaken. Hij was daarmee wel clericus geworden en daarom wordt hij vaak geportretteerd in kleren die clerici droegen. Daarom leek hij een priester, hetgeen hij echter niet was. In werd hij voorzitter van de staats-muziekacademie te Boedapest, thans de vermaarde Ferenc Liszt Academie. Tot in de laatste dagen van zijn leven reisde Liszt door Europa. Vlak voor zijn overlijden werd hij, na een zeer succesvolle concerttournee door Engeland en Frankrijk, verkouden, hetgeen spoedig overging in een longontsteking.
Hiervan zou hij niet meer herstellen. Na dagen aan bed te zijn gebonden, overleed hij op 31 juli , in het bijzijn van enkele van zijn pupillen, op jarige leeftijd in Bayreuth en werd aldaar op 3 augustus begraven. Liszt was een van de grootste pianovirtuozen aller tijden.
Ofschoon zijn concerttournees zeer succesvol waren en hij er veel geld mee verdiende, hadden deze, net als bij Chopin , niet zijn bijzondere voorkeur; niet omdat andere pianisten beter waren — hoewel hij zeker geduchte concurrenten had — maar vanwege een veel grotere missie die hij voor ogen had, namelijk het ontwikkelen van nieuwe muzikale vormen.
Daarnaast had hij andere bezigheden die hem sterk interesseerden, waaronder de liefde en religie. Als componist en dirigent was Liszt een vertegenwoordiger van de programmamuziek.
Deze stroming staat haaks op de 'ware traditie' van de Eerste Weense School , een stroming die voornamelijk vertegenwoordigd werd door Brahms , Joseph Joachim en Mendelssohn. Humphrey Searle maakte een overzicht van de werken van Franz Liszt; zijn nummering wordt aangeduid met "S. Het oeuvre van Liszt omvat onder meer dertien symfonische gedichten S. De meeste van Liszts composities zijn berucht omwille van de hoge technische eisen die aan de pianist worden gesteld.
Liszt en Wagner onderhielden een nauwe band met elkaar: zij waren tijdgenoten en componisten; door het huwelijk met Liszts jongste dochter, werd Wagner de schoonzoon van Liszt.
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