At the conclusion of the pursuit, they acted appropriately to secure suspects and get medical attention for the injured while coordinating with other agencies for crowd control.
With the exception of the unjustified speeds in the case of Officer Iwanowski which will result in a notice of counseling , the corrective action regarding the noted violations will be in the form of training that takes place during an after-action discussion that I will personally facilitate.
I also noted during this review that the GPS device in Officer Cavanah's vehicle was apparently not working during the pursuit. This vehicle is not normally assigned to him, and he had reported to Sergeant Farrand upon learning that the GPS was not working.
I have asked Lieutenant Stone to develop better procedures for more quickly identifying and correcting faulty technology in patrol vehicles. To request removal of your name from an arrest report, submit these required items to arrestreports patch.
Nearby Communities St. Policy Requirements Police department written directive A regulates pursuits. Only sworn personnel may be involved in the pursuit: The following personnel were involved in the pursuit; all are sworn officers and none had passengers in their vehicles: Officer Jesse Kellington, Officer Eva Iwanowski, Officer David Cavanah, Lt.
Joshua Stone Officer has reasonable grounds to believe suspect committed a forcible felony AND either imminent or continued threat to the public: The officers' pursuit was based on evidence that the driver committed at least one likely more forcible felony and that his driving behavior constituted an imminent threat to public safety. Only primary and up to two officers to be engaged in active pursuit unless directed by a supervisor; vehicle will maintain a safe following distance: Officer Kellington was initially the primary pursuit unit, and he was followed at safe distances by Officer Cavanah, and Lieutenant Stone.
No units not involved in the pursuit will leave area of assigned responsibility unless directed to do so by a supervisor: Only those units involved in the pursuit left their assigned areas of responsibility.
Initiating Officer to inform dispatch that a pursuit is taking place and to provide dispatch with vehicle license plate, description, direction of travel: Officer Kellington immediately notified dispatch that he was in pursuit, and he provided all of the required information. Officer to develop and implement a plan to terminate the pursuit PIT only by officers trained to do so Roadblocks are prohibited Approximately two minutes into the pursuit, Officer Kellington indicated his intent to attempt a PIT maneuver.
Police vehicle to have lights and siren activated continuously All police vehicles continuously had lights and sirens activated during the pursuit. Unmarked vehicle to relinquish to marked vehicle At one point during the pursuit, Officer Iwanowski passed Officer Kellington and took the lead role while Kellington slowed for traffic congestion.
Officer may not pursue the wrong way on a divided roadway Neither the suspect vehicle nor any of the pursuing vehicles ever drove the wrong way on a divided highway. Officer to continuously update communications center of the progress of the pursuit Officer Kellington provided continuous updates regarding speed, direction of travel, road and traffic conditions, etc. Officer must abandon pursuit under any of the following: When ordered to do so by a supervisor Upon losing visual contact with the violator Upon losing radio contact with the communications center When the threat to public safety no longer exists Officers Iwanowski and Kellington abandoned their pursuit upon losing visual contact with the violator.
Officer to give strong consideration to abandoning pursuit under any of the following: Pursuit enters congested area and creates unreasonable hazard to the public Visibility, road, or weather conditions limit the probability of a safe and successful conclusion to the pursuit. The violator can be identified to the point that later apprehension can be made Aircraft has visual contact with the violator Items B-C were never factors in this pursuit.
Patrol supervisor decides whether pursuit should remain on primary channel or switch to alternate channel The decision was made to keep the channel on Patrol-1 and restrict that channel to the units involved in the pursuit.
Supervisor to verify proper number of officers involved in the pursuit, proper radio frequency used, affected jurisdictions notified: See notes on 3 above. Supervisor to respond to the scene of termination of pursuit if injuries result: The pursuit ended in a crash that resulted in injuries. Notify on-call lieutenant, dependant on time of day, if pursuit leaves the city of Gulfport Lt.
The supervisor shall complete a report and forward to division commander: Lt. Stone's report was completed and submitted in a timely manner. Reviewer's Actions My review consisted of the following actions: I observed the video from the police cruisers involved in the pursuit evidence.
I reviewed and obtained copies of the relevant offense report. I reviewed and obtained a copy of the radio transmissions evidence. I reviewed GPS records for vehicles involved in the pursuit. Conclusions Despite the minor violations noted, the overall performance of the officers in this pursuit was commendable. Thank Reply Share. The rules of replying: Be respectful.
This is a space for friendly local discussions. No racist, discriminatory, vulgar or threatening language will be tolerated. Be transparent. Use your real name, and back up your claims. Keep it local and relevant. Make sure your replies stay on topic. Review the Patch Community Guidelines. This caused Narcissus to fall in love with his own reflection in a pool of water.
Unable to consummate his love, Narcissus "lay gazing enraptured into the pool, hour after hour," and finally changed into a flower that bears his name, the narcissus. In ancient Greece the concept was understood as hubris. It is only since the late s that narcissism has been defined in psychological terms. The grandiose variant, which is usually measured using the NPI is strongly linked to the DSM-IV conceptualization and is the variant associated with NPD , a Cluster B personality disorder which reflect traits related to self-importance, entitlement, aggression, and dominance.
Vulnerable narcissism reflects a defensive and fragile grandiosity, which functions mainly as a cover for feelings of inadequacy. Vulnerable narcissism characterized by hypersensitivity, defensiveness, and withdrawal and is strongly associated with BPD , which is characterized by the fear of abandonment, interpersonal and affective instability, impulsivity, chronic feelings of emptiness, suicidal ideation, and self-mutilation.
Pathological narcissism is when both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism is concurrent, which is linked to poor self-esteem, lack of empathy, feelings of shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and significant impairments in personality functioning across both clinical and non-clinical samples. Pathological narcissism, as measured by the Pathological Narcissism Inventory PNI , is embedded within the personality disorders organized at the borderline level, which include antisocial, borderline, narcissistic personality disorders.
PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization. The general move towards a dimensional personality trait-based view of the Personality Disorders has been maintained. Some narcissists may have a limited or minimal capability to experience emotions. The Cochrane Collaboration has commissioned two reviews of the evidence for psychological and medical treatments for Narcissistic Personality Disorder NPD.
There are no clear treatment strategies for NPD,  neither medication nor psychotherapy. Karen Horney saw the narcissistic personality as a temperament trait molded by a certain kind of early environment. She did not see narcissistic needs and tendencies as inherent in human nature. Normal or healthy narcissism is an essential component of mature self-esteem and basic self-worth.
Craig Malkin describes a lack of healthy narcissism as echoism, a term inspired by the nymph Echo in the mythology of Narcissus. Freud said that narcissism was an original state from which the individual develops the love object. Compared to neutral observers, parents tend to overvalue the qualities of their child. When parents act in an extreme opposite style and the child is rejected or inconsistently reinforced depending on the mood of the parent, the self-needs of the child are not met.
Freud contrasted the natural development of active-egoistic and passive-altruistic tendencies in the individual with narcissism, in the former, and what Trevor Pederson referred to as echoism, in the latter. This is the place for two remarks.
First, how do we differentiate between the concepts of narcissism and egoism? Well, narcissism, I believe, is the libidinal complement to egoism. When we speak of egoism, we have in view only the individual's advantage; when we talk of narcissism we are also taking his libidinal satisfaction into account. As practical motives the two can be traced separately for quite a distance.
It is possible to be absolutely egoistic and yet maintain powerful object-cathexes, in so far as libidinal satisfaction in relation to the object forms part of the ego's needs.
In that case, egoism will see to it that striving for the object involves no damage to the ego. It is possible to be egoistic and at the same time to be excessively narcissistic—that is to say, to have very little need for an object, whether, once more, for the purpose of direct sexual satisfaction, or in connection with the higher aspirations, derived from sexual need, which we are occasionally in the habit of contrasting with 'sensuality' under the name of 'love'.
In all these connections egoism is what is self-evident and constant, while narcissism is the variable element. The opposite to egoism, altruism, does not, as a concept, coincide with libidinal object-cathexis, but is distinguished from it by the absence of longings for sexual satisfaction. When someone is completely in love, however, altruism converges with libidinal object-cathexis. As a rule the sexual object attracts a portion of the ego's narcissism to itself, and this becomes noticeable as what is known as the 'sexual overvaluation' of the object.
If in addition there is an altruistic transposition of egoism on to the sexual object, the object becomes supremely powerful; it has, as it were, absorbed the ego. Where the egoist can give up love in narcissism, the altruist can give up on the competition, or "the will," in echoism. The individual first has a non-ambivalent relations of fusion with authority or love figures, which are characterized by the egoistic or altruistic drives.
Second, the individual can move to defusion from authority or love figures which leads to repetitions of ambivalent, narcissistic or echoistic relations. In the third movement, the individual becomes the dead or absent parental figure that never returned love to the echoist, or the perfect, grandiose parental figure in narcissism. Pederson has two types of echoists: the "subject altruist" and the "object altruist", with the former being concerned with the belonging of others and loving them, and the latter being concerned with their own belonging and being loved.
The subject altruist is self-effacing, a people pleaser, and sacrifices her desire to help others who are outsiders become insiders, or to be the submissive helper of an insider. The object altruist is gregarious, a people person, and wants to be interesting which is based on wanting to fit in and not be an outsider or wanting to be unique as an insider. Both types of echoists show issues with being submissive, having problems saying no, and avoiding conflict.
Freud's idea of narcissism described a pathology which manifests itself in the inability to love others, a lack of empathy, emptiness, boredom, and an unremitting need to search for power, while making the person unavailable to others. Healthy narcissism has to do with a strong feeling of "own love" protecting the human being against illness. Eventually, however, the individual must love the other, "the object love to not become ill".
The individual becomes ill as a result of the frustration created when he is unable to love the object. The clinical theorists Kernberg , Kohut and Theodore Millon all saw pathological narcissism as a possible outcome in response to unempathic and inconsistent early childhood interactions. They suggested that narcissists try to compensate in adult relationships.
Healthy narcissism has been suggested to be correlated with good psychological health. Self-esteem works as a mediator between narcissism and psychological health. Therefore, because of their elevated self-esteem, deriving from self-perceptions of competence and likability, high narcissists are relatively free of worry and gloom.
Other researchers have suggested that healthy narcissism cannot be seen as 'good' or 'bad', but that it depends on the contexts and outcomes being measured. In certain social contexts such as initiating social relationships, and with certain outcome variables, such as feeling good about oneself, healthy narcissism can be helpful. In other contexts, such as maintaining long-term relationships and with outcome variables, such as accurate self-knowledge, healthy narcissism can be unhelpful.
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory NPI is the most widely used measure of narcissism in social psychological research. Thus, the NPI is often said to measure "normal" or "subclinical" borderline narcissism i. In other words, the NPI measures "normal" narcissism; i. Within the field of psychology , there are two main branches of research into narcissism: 1 clinical and 2 social psychology. These two approaches differ in their view of narcissism, with the former treating it as a disorder, thus as discrete, and the latter treating it as a personality trait , thus as a continuum.
These two strands of research tend loosely to stand in a divergent relation to one another, although they converge in places. Campbell and Foster  review the literature on narcissism.
They argue that narcissists possess the following "basic ingredients":. Narcissists tend to demonstrate a lack of interest in warm and caring interpersonal relationships. Campbell and Foster argue that self-regulatory strategies are of paramount importance to understanding narcissism.
It comes in both intra-psychic, such as blaming a situation rather than self for failure, and interpersonal forms, such as using a relationship to serve one's own self. In each experiment, participants took part in an achievement task, following which they were provided with false feedback; it was either bogus success or failure. The study found that both narcissists and non-narcissists self-enhanced, but non-narcissists showed more flexibility in doing so. Participants were measured on both a comparative and a non-comparative self-enhancement strategy.
Both narcissists and non-narcissists employed the non-comparative strategy similarly; however, narcissists were found to be more self-serving with the comparative strategy, employing it far more than non-narcissists, suggesting a greater rigidity in their self-enhancement. When narcissists receive negative feedback that threatens the self, they self-enhance at all costs, but non-narcissists tend to have limits.
Sorokowski et al. Sorokowski's study showed that this relationship was stronger among men than women. A study found that females scored significantly higher on vulnerable narcissism than males, but no gender differences were found for grandiose narcissism.
Research indicates that being in a devalued social group can encourage narcissism in some members of that group, as said individuals attempt to compensate for their low social status due to being a member of a stigmatised group by exaggerating their own self-worth by engaging in narcissism, which may also help them psychologically cope with negative treatment at the hands of others, though it may also cause them to engage in behaviour detrimental to themselves.
Livesley et al. The study subjects were volunteer twin pairs ninety identical, eighty-five fraternal drawn from the general population. Each twin completed a questionnaire that assessed eighteen dimensions of personality disorder. The authors estimated the heritability of each dimension of personality by standard methods, thus providing estimates of the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causation.
Of the eighteen personality dimensions, narcissism was found to have the highest heritability 0. Of the other dimensions of personality, only four were found to have heritability coefficients of greater than 0. Arikan found that a stigmatising attitude to psychiatric patients is associated with narcissistic personality traits. The concept of narcissism is used in evolutionary psychology in relation to the mechanisms of assortative mating , or the non-random choice of a partner for purposes of procreation.
Evidence for assortative mating among humans is well established; humans mate assortatively regarding age, IQ, height, weight, nationality, educational and occupational level, physical and personality characteristics, and family relatedness.
Alvarez et al. Narcissistic supply is a concept introduced into psychoanalytic theory by Otto Fenichel in , to describe a type of admiration , interpersonal support or sustenance drawn by an individual from his or her environment and essential to their self-esteem. Narcissistic rage is a reaction to narcissistic injury, which is a perceived threat to a narcissist's self-esteem or self-worth.
Narcissistic injury and narcissistic scar are terms used by Sigmund Freud in the s. Narcissistic wound and narcissistic blow are other, almost interchangeable, terms. The term narcissistic rage was coined by Heinz Kohut in Narcissistic rage occurs on a continuum from aloofness, to expressions of mild irritation or annoyance, to serious outbursts, including violent attacks. Narcissistic rage reactions are not limited to personality disorders. They may also be seen in catatonic , paranoid delusion , and depressive episodes.
The first layer of rage can be thought of as a constant anger towards someone else, with the second layer being a self-aimed anger. Narcissistic defenses are those processes whereby the idealized aspects of the self are preserved, and its limitations denied.
Narcissistic abuse was originally just defined as a specific form of emotional abuse of children by narcissistic parents — parents who require the child to give up their own wants and feelings in order to serve the parent's needs for esteem.
Self-help culture assumes that someone abused by narcissistic parenting as a child likely struggles with codependency issues in adulthood. An adult who is or has been in a relationship with a narcissist likely struggles with not knowing what constitutes a "normal" relationship.
In recent years the term has been applied more broadly to refer to any abuse by a narcissist including in adult to adult relationships. In , James F. Masterson proposed two categories for pathological narcissism, exhibitionist and closet. The exhibitionist narcissist is the one described in DSM-IV and differs from the closet narcissist in several important ways.
The closet narcissist is more likely to be described as having a deflated, inadequate self-perception and greater awareness of emptiness within. The exhibitionist narcissist would be described as having an inflated, grandiose self-perception with little or no conscious awareness of the emptiness within.
Such a person would assume that this condition was normal and that others were just like him. The closet narcissist seeks constant approval from others and appears similar to the borderline in the need to please others.
The exhibitionist narcissist seeks perfect admiration all the time from others. In Theodore Millon identified four variations of narcissist. Each member of your sales team can run Pursuit 7 on their laptop and later merge their proposal to your master database - remotely! Extensive proposals can be created in under 5 minutes using templates of similar 'master' proposals you have previously created Attach product data sheets, product images, brochures or any number of PDF documents to each proposal easily Pursuit tightly integrates with Alarm, sharing similar files such as inventory, and creates invoice from proposal and service scheduling within seconds.
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